Internal Punctuation

    ,
    :
    ;
   
    ( )
     
    [ ]
    . . .
    “ ”
     
    ‘ ’
     

The Comma

A comma is used in the following ways:

The Colon

In general, there must be a complete thought either before or after a colon.

Note that Canadian usage is lower case after a colon, while American is uppercase. The colon is used in the following ways:

The Semicolon

A semicolon is used in the following ways:

The Dash

In general, dashes emphasize. A dash is longer than a hyphen, and there are no spaces on either side. A dash is used in the following ways:

Parentheses

In general, parentheses de-emphasize. Parentheses are used in the following ways:

Punctuation with Parentheses

Brackets

Brackets are used in the following ways:

Ellipsis Marks

Ellipsis marks are used in the following ways:

Quotation Marks

Quotation marks are used in the following ways:

Punctuation within Quotation Marks

Single Quotation Marks

Quoted Material