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Unit 7 Quiz

Click on the best response to each question.

1. What juvenile justice model is followed in a country where due process and formal action take priority over the treatment of the juvenile?

  1. welfare
  2. legalistic correct answer
  3. corporatist
  4. participatory

Answer: b
The legalistic model emphasizes individual rights and responsibilities, and the use of punishment as the mechanism by which to sanction behaviour.

Source: Reichel (2008, p. 348)

2. Sarah, age 14, has been sentenced in England to meet with a group of citizens from the local community, her parents, and the victim of her offence. Together, they have decided that Sarah must complete a treatment program over the next 12 months. This is referred to as:

  1. a reparation order.
  2. an action plan order.
  3. a referral order. correct answer
  4. a detention and training order.

Answer: c
In England, the Youth Offending Team meets with the young person to determine a suitable program for the young person. In Canada, the Youth Restorative Action Project (YRAP) is a unique and innovative program that originated in Edmonton. This program asks young people between the ages of 16 and 24 to meet with the offender and any other interested parties to determine an appropriate sentence, which is then recommended to the court.

Source: Reichel (2008, p. 360)

3. Some observers attribute the increase in delinquency in China to:

  1. the increased availability of Western movies and television programs.
  2. increased access to the Internet.
  3. China’s one-child policy, which has contributed to a feeling of entitlement among Chinese children. correct answer
  4. a move toward more capitalism and democratization in China.

Answer: c
In addition to the concern that Chinese parents may be too lenient with their children, youth offending is believed to be directly related to reduced levels of supervision from parents or guardians, and, in some cases, from siblings.

Source: Reichel (2008, p. 364)

4. Which of the following statements best defines the concept of parens patriae?

  1. The parents of a delinquent are financially liable for any damage caused by their child.
  2. The state must defer to the wishes of the child’s parents when the young person misbehaves.
  3. The state must protect its citizens from the misbehaviour of delinquents.
  4. The state is obliged to serve as guardian for children whose parents are unable or unwilling to provide adequate support and supervision in the area of health and law-abiding behaviour. correct answer

Answer: d
The welfare model of youth justice assumes that the state has the responsibility for the care and supervision of children whose parents are unable to fulfill that role.

Source: Reichel (2008, p. 347)

5. The United States and Somalia have refused to become signatories to the Beijing Rules because:

  1. they would be obligated to provide legal counsel to young people charged with criminal offences.
  2. they would no longer be able to use the death penalty for young persons under the age of 18. correct answer
  3. there is concern that they would be obligated to provide educational programs for young persons in custody.
  4. none of the above.

Answer: b
Although the Reichel text indicates that both the United States and Somalia refused to ratify the Beijing Rules because the rules prohibit the execution of children, it is important to note that as of March 1, 2005, the United States Supreme Court has ruled that the use of the death penalty on minors is unconstitutional. Thus, about 70 young people currently on death row in the United States have had their sentences commuted. The Court has ruled that no state may use the death penalty for minors in the future.

Source: Reichel (2008, p. 344)

6. Which of the following acts is used to guide criminal justice professionals in preventing and responding to youth crime in Canada?

  1. Juvenile Delinquents Act
  2. Young Offenders Act
  3. Youth Criminal Justice Act correct answer
  4. Criminal Code of Canada

Answer: c
Canada’s current legislation states, as one of its principles, “the prevention of crime by addressing the circumstances underlying a young person’s offending behaviour, rehabilitation of young persons who commit offences and reintegration of young people back into society.” The act also refers to the concept of “meaningful consequences” for a young person’s offence.

Source: Youth Criminal Justice Act (http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/Y-1.5/)

7. What juvenile justice model is followed in a country that tries to educate all citizens and fully integrate misbehaving youth into law-abiding society?

  1. welfare
  2. legalistic
  3. corporatist
  4. participatory correct answer

Answer: d
The Chinese and Japanese believe that young people must be taught about the laws, the social norms, and the values of the country in order to both prevent and respond to delinquency.

Source: Reichel (2008, p. 364)

8. A major predictor of juvenile delinquency is:

  1. low levels of parental supervision. correct answer
  2. poor educational test scores.
  3. access to firearms.
  4. repeated exposure to media violence.

Answer: a
Studies conducted by Junger-Tas suggest that if the relationship between children and parents is strong, and parental supervision is close, the risk of delinquency is reduced.

Source: Reichel (2008, p. 343, “You Should Know” textbox)

9. An informal process that brings the young offender together with his or her victim, members of their immediate and extended families, and justice officials is known as a:

  1. victim-offender mediation.
  2. family group conference. correct answer
  3. justice tribunal.
  4. youth court.

Answer: b
These conferences, which originated in New Zealand, are now being replicated in many jurisdictions around the world, including Canada.

Source: Reichel (2008, p. 350-351)

10. Which one of the following statements is true?

  1. The United Nations has set age 18 as the minimum age of criminal responsibility.
  2. Delinquency is considered a problem in all parts of the world, with the exception of The Netherlands.
  3. A specific and important goal of the New Zealand legislation on Family Group Conferencing was to increase the involvement of victims in the criminal justice system. correct answer
  4. Canada uses the welfare youth justice model.

Answer: c
The inclusion of victims in the youth criminal justice systems of numerous countries is an international criminal justice trend.

Source: Reichel (2008, p. 351)