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Click on the best response to each question.
1. What juvenile justice model is followed in a country where due process and formal action take priority over the treatment of the juvenile?
The legalistic model emphasizes individual rights and responsibilities, and the use of punishment as the mechanism by which to sanction behaviour.
Source: Reichel (2008, p. 348)
2. Sarah, age 14, has been sentenced in England to meet with a group of citizens from the local community, her parents, and the victim of her offence. Together, they have decided that Sarah must complete a treatment program over the next 12 months. This is referred to as:
In England, the Youth Offending Team meets with the young person to determine a suitable program for the young person. In Canada, the Youth Restorative Action Project (YRAP) is a unique and innovative program that originated in Edmonton. This program asks young people between the ages of 16 and 24 to meet with the offender and any other interested parties to determine an appropriate sentence, which is then recommended to the court.
Source: Reichel (2008, p. 360)
3. Some observers attribute the increase in delinquency in China to:
In addition to the concern that Chinese parents may be too lenient with their children, youth offending is believed to be directly related to reduced levels of supervision from parents or guardians, and, in some cases, from siblings.
Source: Reichel (2008, p. 364)
4. Which of the following statements best defines the concept of parens patriae?
The welfare model of youth justice assumes that the state has the responsibility for the care and supervision of children whose parents are unable to fulfill that role.
Source: Reichel (2008, p. 347)
5. The United States and Somalia have refused to become signatories to the Beijing Rules because:
Although the Reichel text indicates that both the United States and Somalia refused to ratify the Beijing Rules because the rules prohibit the execution of children, it is important to note that as of March 1, 2005, the United States Supreme Court has ruled that the use of the death penalty on minors is unconstitutional. Thus, about 70 young people currently on death row in the United States have had their sentences commuted. The Court has ruled that no state may use the death penalty for minors in the future.
Source: Reichel (2008, p. 344)
6. Which of the following acts is used to guide criminal justice professionals in preventing and responding to youth crime in Canada?
Canada’s current legislation states, as one of its principles, “the prevention of crime by addressing the circumstances underlying a young person’s offending behaviour, rehabilitation of young persons who commit offences and reintegration of young people back into society.” The act also refers to the concept of “meaningful consequences” for a young person’s offence.
Source: Youth Criminal Justice Act (http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/Y-1.5/)
7. What juvenile justice model is followed in a country that tries to educate all citizens and fully integrate misbehaving youth into law-abiding society?
The Chinese and Japanese believe that young people must be taught about the laws, the social norms, and the values of the country in order to both prevent and respond to delinquency.
Source: Reichel (2008, p. 364)
8. A major predictor of juvenile delinquency is:
Studies conducted by Junger-Tas suggest that if the relationship between children and parents is strong, and parental supervision is close, the risk of delinquency is reduced.
Source: Reichel (2008, p. 343, “You Should Know” textbox)
9. An informal process that brings the young offender together with his or her victim, members of their immediate and extended families, and justice officials is known as a:
These conferences, which originated in New Zealand, are now being replicated in many jurisdictions around the world, including Canada.
Source: Reichel (2008, p. 350-351)
10. Which one of the following statements is true?
The inclusion of victims in the youth criminal justice systems of numerous countries is an international criminal justice trend.
Source: Reichel (2008, p. 351)